Works cited for Amanda’s Paper Presentation at Breaking the Glass Frame (2018): An Examination of Lauren Montgomery’s Influence on Modern Superhero Pop Culture.


USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative/Annenberg Foundation

Dr. Stacy L. Smith, Marc Choueiti, Dr. Katherine Pieper, Ariana Case, & Angel Choi, Inequality in 1,100 Popular Films: Examining Portrayals of Gender, Race/Ethnicity, LGBT & Disability from 2007 to 2017 (July 2018)

Dr. Stacy L. Smith, Marc Choueiti, Dr. Katherine Pieper, Inclusion in the Director’s Chair? Gender, Race & Age of Directors Across 1,100 Films from 2007-2017 (January 2018) (USC Annenberg, School for Communication and Journalism)

Center for the Study of Women in Television & Film, San Diego State University

Dr. Martha M Lauzen, “Boxed In 2017-18: Women On Screen and Behind the Scenes in TelevisionCenter for the Study of Women in Television & Film, San Diego State University (September 2018)

Dr. Martha M Lauzen, “It’s a Man’s (Celluloid) World: Portrayals of Female Characters in the 100 Top Films of 2017”. Center for the Study of Women in Television & Film, San Diego State University  (2017)

See Jane, Gina Davis Institute on Gender in Media

The See Jane 100, Gender and Race Representations in the Top Family Films of 2017

Motion Picture Association of America

Theatrical Market Statistics 2016

UCLA College Social Sciences

Hollywood Diversity Report 2018: Five Years of Progress and Missed Opportunities

Dr. Darnell Hunt, Dr. Ana-Christina Ramón, Michael Tran, Amberia Sargent, and Debanjan Roychoudhury

Peer Reviewed Articles:

Boe, Josh L. & Rebecca J. Woods, “Parents’ Influence on Infants’ Gender-Typed Toy Preferences”, Sex Roles (2018) 79:358–373, Published online: 3 November 2017

Baker,K., & Raney, A.A.(2007). “Equally super?: Gender-role stereotyping of superheroes in children’s animated programs”. Mass Communication & Society, 10, 25 – 41 (dec 2007) Kaysee Baker and Arthur A Raney Vol 10, 2007 issue 1

Coyne, S., Linder, J., Rasmussen, E., Nelson, D., & Collier, K. (2014). It’s a bird! It’s a plane! It’s a gender stereotype!: Longitudinal associations between superhero viewing and gender stereotyped play. Sex Roles, 70, 416–430. Link

Hentges, Beth & Kim Case (2013) “Gender Representations on Disney Channel, Cartoon Network, and Nickelodeon Broadcasts in the United States”, Journal of Children and Media, 7:3, 319-333. Link

Scott, Suzanne  (2017) #Wheresrey?: Toys, spoilers, and the gender politics of franchise paratexts, Critical Studies in Media Communication, 34:2, 138-147 Link

Stabile, C. A. (2009). Sweetheart, this ain’t gender studies: Sexism and superheroes. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 6, 86–92. Link


Banet-Weiser, Sarah, Kids Rule!: Nickelodeon and Consumer Citizenship Duke University Press. 2007.

Brown, Jeffery A. The Modern Superhero in Film and Television: Popular Genre and American Culture. Routledge Advances in Comics Studies. New York: 2017.

Gray II, Richard J. “Vivacious Vixens and Scintillanting Super-Hotties: Desconstructing the Superheroine” The 21st Century Superhero: Essays on Gender, Genre and Globalization in Film edited by Richard J. Gray II, Betty Kaklamanidou

Lemish, Dafna, Screening Gender on Children’s Television: The Views of Producers around the World 1st Edition. Routledge, New York: 2010.

Online Source/Articles and Publications:

Graph on Superhero Market Share

How ‘Voltron Legendary Defender’ Is a Small Victory for Transgender Visibility By Nick Romano

Why The Legend of Korra is still a Feminists Headache

The Legend of Korra and Mixed Message Feminism

NPR Interview- Neda Ulaby, April 13, 20124:04 PM ET

Copeland, Libby. Korra’s a Girl? TV producers think boys won’t watch girl heroines. Turns out that’s not true. (SEPT. 25 2013 11:49 PM)

Romano, Nick. “How Voltron showrunners found a Legendary LGBT Defender in Shiro” Entertainment Weekly, Aug 9, 2018 9am EDT

Video Clips

“What Makes a Wonder Woman?” Video clip at the end of Wonder Woman: Commemorative Edition (2009, 83 min)